THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE
By ION CARSTOIU
1. INTRODUCTION 9
2. SOME POINTS OF VIEW AND E-MAILS 11
The Question of the Origin of Language in René Girard, Eric Gans 13
Eric Gans and the Origin of Language 13
Etymology gleanings for November 2016 17
Etymology gleanings for September 2018 18
Is blood red? 18
Etymology gleanings for November 2018 19
Monthly gleanings for September 2019 20
3. THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE. SKY-SUN-EARTH THEORY 22
4. THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE AND LOGIC 32
5. THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE AND METAPHOR 34
6. THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE AND PHILOSOPHY 44
7. THE WORD „SKY” IN WORLD LANGUAGES 48
8. SUN IN WORLD LANGUAGES (list 3) 54
9. THE SOUND R, THE MOTION, THE SUNRISE, THE WIND, THE RIVER, TO GO, TO WORK, 59
TO AWAKEN AND LANGUAGE ORIGIN 59
10. THE "ARBITRARINESS" OF LINGUISTIC SIGN 63
11. THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE."WATER" 68
12. THE ETYMOLOGY OF THE WORD MAFIA 71
13. SKY. SUN. EARTH THEORY. BLUE 73
14. THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE.SKY-SUN-EARTH THEORY. DOG 75
15. SKY-SUN-EARTH THEORY. FISH 78
16. THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE. SKY-SUN-EARTH THEORY. BLOOD 82
17. WAR AND PEACE 85
18. NOTHING ARBITRARY IN LANGUAGE* 87
19. SEMANTIC FIELD: HOPE-SAVE-HELP-SUN-FIRE-FRIEND-FREE-LIGHT-WARM-BOIL-WINE-SUMMER 90
20. THE ETYMOLOGY OF ''SLAVE". WHY IS THIS NAME WRONG? 93
21. SOME ETYMOLOGIES: FIRE, KNEE, TREE, TO GIVE 99
Warning! I am a self-educated person vs.English. I was a teacher of Russian and Romanian languages, so pay attention to ideas and less to grammar and stylistics. What is language? How, where and when did it appear? Language is a means of communication between people. See The Origin of Language and Philosophy. The first words were onomatopoeia: miau, chirp, cucu, or interjections: au!, oh, etc. or words from the children's speach:mama, tata, caca, pipi. Biped walking has made the hands to be used for different activities. There were changes of internal organs, now arranged vertically. In humans the larynx is descended. Our species is not unique in this respect: dogs, goats, pigs lower the larynx temporarily to emit loud calls. Read on FOXP2 and Broca's area. Man was impressed by the phenomena of nature, especially sky, sun, earth. In the '70's I made up lists for these words from books printed in Romania and other countries. I put these words in alphabetical order of the names of the sun, not of the languages. I enriched these lists after the Revolution and especially thanks to the Internet.
This work consists of 19 articles from Confluențe literare. I know there are many mistakes (one thousand?). The age does not allow me to use a genuine translator. I hasten because I want to see the book published as long as I am alive. The origin of language is considered an unserious, unresolvable, forbidden, taboo subject. So in 1866 the Linguistic Society of Paris decreed that it does not receive articles on this topic. French linguists have left philosophers, historians, archaeologists, psychologists, doctors and servants of God to deal with this subject. There is no linguist dedicated to this problem. After almost 100 years, some linguists have tried timidly to contest the LSP's decision. I assert that the problem of the origin of language will be solved by linguists. The lists of words (Swadesh), mass-comparison (Greenberg, M.Ruhlen), the work of authors of Wiktionary and so on are useful. Many authors claim to speak of the origin of language, but deal with other topics. I do not give examples. The first word was probably au (oh) with reference to the sky. as I wrote in Pași în universul cunoașterii, 2001 and now in 2019 I found in Mbilua (Solomon Isls.) the word au''sky".
Among the few words besides the onomatopoeia, the interjections, must have been: ''water", ''see', ''go'', ''stay'', “down'', “cut'', “hit'',”blood'', ”sky'', “sun'', “god'', “earth'' etc. In the last 5 years I have come into contact with a few US scholars , including Prof. Anatoly Liberman, whom I am grateful to have opened my eyes to Max Muller. I knew he was dealing with the Indo-European religion, but I did not pay attention to the problem of the origin of language at this great scholar. I have now found that I have reached conclusions similar to this ones, although I refer to words from very many languages of the world.
Bălcești, November 1th 2019 Prof. Ion Cârstoiu
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