by Ion Carstoiu
Let's imagine the man in the glacial lands, hidden in a grotto or igloo, as the Eskimos have. Outside is darkness, frost. The death watches the man, who draws out his head and sees a ray of sunshine. This ray of sun is a ray of hope. If we remenber that in Phoenician shapash/shepesh or with s instead of sh(sapas,sopos)means ''sun'' we can deduce that from here is Latin spes''hope'', possibly and Slavic spasti''to save''too, the sunrise means salvation; it is noticed that Latin ''salvation''is salus with a instead o from sol''sun''. In several languages (Iranian, Greek, Celtic)s pass to h , see Engl. hope, close to hop''to jump'' in all European languages. Latin salire''to jump'' has a like in Garo language sal''sun''(E.India)., instead of Latin sol with o. The situation is identical at salus''salvation''. In Greek hope was helpis, because the sun was helios. Here is Engl.help too? See Hungarian remel ''to hope'' and Tatar emel vs.re/rem''sun''
FRIEND. With the heat and emanated light, the sun is the friend of man, of animals and plants. So ''friend'' derives from the sun, fire, sometimes through the verb''to love'': Latin amicus is from amo"I love", with unknown etymology, after me is related to O.Indian kama''love'', kham, kam''sun'' with k- eliminated. Engl. friend connects to Skr. priya''liked, beloved'', which compares with por, pur, para''fire''in Tocharian, Greek(and Korean), as well the sun poreatsiri in Machiguenga, praatit in Thai and the end of Kheper, the god of the morning sun in Egyptian. Other examples: Skr. mitra''friend''=Mitra sun god in Iranian; Skr.sakhi cf.saku''sun'' in Caddo, here is also Latin socius''friend, husband, ''Germ. win is comparable with wi''sun'' in Dakota and Shiwini in Urartu, camarade, comrade resembles the Indian kam''sun'' and Arabic qamar''moon''. Likewise Jap. tomo''friend'' I associate with toma''sun'' in Wiyot, but Turkish arkadas with arka''sun'' in Skr.Slavic drug resembles dara ''star'' in Khmer, dare, dari''sun'' in Maipua, Tagota(PNG).
Let's add: in Nama/Khoekhoe sore-b''sun'', but sorebis''friend'', Vietn. ban~bani''sun'' in Coto(Columbia), kawa in Hausa cf.kawe ''sun'' in Salinan, Uzbek yar cf.yor''sun'' in Khowar and yaro in Woleaian(Micronesia), in Oriya sanga''friend''~sngi''sun'' in Khasi (NE India), Eskimo illamar''friend''cf. lmar''sun'' in Pashto. Mihail Sadoveanu wrote about the friend sun.
WINE. The drink, especially the red wine is associated , in my opinion, with the color of strong sun at noon. People admit that the wine comes from the warm Caucasian lands, in Armenian ghin, Georgian gvino. I add Shiwini, the sun god in Urartu. The Greek word for ''wine'' is krasi, which is similar with karasi ''sun'' in Murua (PNG)Arabic khamr cf. qamar''moon'' in the same language, kham''sun in Indian. Add sato in Thai cf. sato''sun'' in Saa(Solomon Isls), sake in Jap.~saku''sun'' in Kaddo, Skr. sura''wine''=sura''sun''. Persian bada cf. badi''sun'' in Cashinahua (Peru). Researchers reconstituted Afro-Asiatic*wainu''wine'', which, after me ,reminds us of wayna, wayno''sun'' in Adzerma/Zarma(Niger).
SUMMER. Romanian vara''summer'' is deduced by Latin ver, vera''spring'', see Chuvash veri''warm'', var- in Slavic, *uer in PIE, all in relation to Dravidian sun vera, in Polinesian too. I add vara''sun'' in Molima (PNG). Uda in Basque~udu''sun'' in Uygur. Hungarian nyar''summer''~Mongolian nar''sun''. In Warlpiri wanta means''sun, summer''. Slavic leto cf.pelet''sky'' in Chuvash. Ainu sak=sak''sun'' in Jicaque.
BOIL. in Engl. has a relation with beil''sun'' in Rohingya. and hot with hottu''sun'' in Dravidian, wella''hot'' in Hawaiian cf.cf.vela''sun'' in Dravid, Greek seiriao''be hot'' is the sun siri in Kashmir. Turkish kayna-''to boil'' looks like ''sun'' kan, kun, kon in Ninantic, Turkic, Chimush. For Arabic gala compare galo, galu in PNG. ''sun''..
FREE. Latin liber, explained by PIE*h2leudheros, from h2leud''people'', in my opinion, cf. libir''sun'' in Garawa. Engl. free from frijaz, prijos''beloved'', but from ''fire'', sun'' as I wrote at friend. Greek apolis''end of service when people is free to go home'' cf.Apolo. Turkish hur, Arabic hurr~hur''sun'' in Ossetian. Slavic svobod--suob is like saba''sun'' in Klamath, sobi''sun'' in Sardinian. Turkish erkin~Skr. arka''sun'', Latin assero ''I liberate'''cf.sera''sun'' in Siagha Yen(PNG). In Sherpa ''free'' is khomu cf.kom''sun'' in Tocharic A, kham, kam ''sun'' in Indian. Hawaiian kala means ''the sun, to free, to forgive"'.
The man in jail (Slavic, Romanian temnitsa from temn-''dark, darkness''), but when he is out, on sunshine, is free, antonym of closed in jail, when the sun is not seen.