NOTHING ARBITRARY IN LANGUAGE*
by Ion Cârstoiu
In 2014 Prof.Ali Mazrui wrote: ''The Swahili word for the sun and the Swahili word for to know are the same. The word is jua. Is the sun the fountain of all knowledge?'' ( African Thought… 242). In Mbilua nanu means “day”; and nano''to know''(day=sun). Engl.know from knowen... PIE*gneh3''to know''cf.Skr.gna, Slavic znati, but gn is comparable with Turkish gun ''sun'' and kin being a Turkic variant with g/k. In my opinion the sun illumes the universe and our mind too. So tahu ''know'' in Malay is associated with taha ''sun'' in Guarijio(Mexic), North Thai hu=hu''sun''in Sentani(PNG), Latin scio, officially from PIE*skijo, skey-''to distinguish, to dissect'', but I think sc is cf. sik from sikinik ''sun'' in Eskimo, Albanian di ''know'' is from diell ''sun'' and di ''sun'' in Awak(Nigeria). But knowledge is gathered in books. See Slavic kniga,where kn is a variant of gn (see above '' know''). The book is named gwon in Korean. Semitic sfar, sefer ''book'' are comparable with Skr.svar ''sun''. Chinese shu is from sha ''sun'' in Navajo or from Shamash, sun god with a/u.Lat.liber(see official etymology in Wiktionary) is nearer libir ''sun'' in Garawa(Australia), Lebe in Dogon. Buryat nom ''book''~num ''sun'' in Bambui(Cameroon) and Tamil nul looks like null ''sun'' in Tonga, where the relation to ''sun'' may be accepted because the leaves of papyrus were rolled(round). See Isan pung vs.punga ''sun'' in Ayapathu.
THINK is explained by PIE*teng, but compare tangu in Bacongo, thngai in Khmer, both ''sun''. Romanian a gândi ''to think'', gondol in Hungarian, gund in Munda are comparable with Gandhi ''sun'' in Skr., but Slavic dum resembles dum ''sun'' in Alfendio(PNG), Chinese nam=nam ''sun'' in Dumi(Nepal). WISE is believed from PIE*weyd ''to see'', but add wei ''sun'' in Macushi, weyu in Cariban. German klug ''wise'' has kl from kolo ''wheel 'in Slavic,', kolo ''sun'' in Watubela. Albanian urte based on unattestated*ur, related to Latin verus ''true'', in my opinion is comparable with uru ''sun'' in Zande(S.Sudan), hur ''sun'' in Ossetian, or ''sun'' in Biak(PNG,Indon.). Latin sapio and Gr.sophos, explained by PIE*seh2p ''to try, to research'' are cf.Phoenician sapas ''sun''. Romanian poet Ion Barbu wrote on wise sun (soarele înţelept).
HAND is from *handuz of uncertain origin. I explain it by Niantic kan''sun''(k/h).+-d.Slavic ruka and Oromo harka ''hand'' are like Skr.arka ''sun'', officially fromP.Sl.*ronka, ranka in Baltic… PIE*wronk-eh2 (page does not exist). I compare it with Latin branca ''paw'', unkn.or., which is Makedon. granka ''branch'' with g/b.cf.Celtic grian ''sun''. Mongolian gar=gar ''sun'' in Anor(PNG), Svan shi ''hand''=shi ''sun'' in Mixe de Jaltepec and Latin manus cf.PIE*meh2r-meh2n. I compare it with man from Mandu ''sun'' in Australia, moni, muni ''sun'' in Bangala(Congo) and final man from asman ''sky'' in Skr. Gamilaray mara ''hand''=mara ''sun'' in Abaz(Caucasus). Naap in Winebago~nap ''sun'' in Hungarian. Max Muller, Lectures on the Science... wrote: ''For instance, when the rays of the sun are called the hands or fingers of the sun, the noun which means hand or finger existed ready made and was as such transferred poetically to the stretched out rays of the sun''. Now on FINGER. This word is explained from PIE*penkwe''five''. But in Ayapathu punga ''sun'' is with g. See titi in Georgian=titi''sun'' in Arara, huruu in Mongolian=hur ''sun'' in Ossetian, salaa in Khakas~sal ''sun'' in Garo(E.India), Slavic palec is comparable with pal ''sun'' in Bullom(Sierra Leone). ''Savitar , one of the names of the sun, is called golden-handed''(M.Muller, Lectures...378). Therefore ''gold'' is associated with the sun.cf.ghali in Klatskanie, galo ''sun'' in Sinaugoro(PNG)+-d; kham ''gold'' in Lao=kham ''sun'' in Gipsy and Nagamese., Tocharian A word for gold is was=was''sun'' in Molalla. Ancient Greek khursos in my opinion cf.khors ''sun'' in Irano-Slavic., Sinhalese ran~rana''sun'' in Hausa.; Chin.Cantonese gam=gham ''sun'' in Nepali.
ANT has a relation to the sun: sisi in Quechua=sisi ''sun'' in Wayana(Brazil, Guyana), muri in Kurdish=muri ''sun'' in aboriginal Australian., dule in Saho(Etiopia)=dule ''sun'' in Fur (Sudan) ; hangya in Hungarian, unkn.origin~kanga''sun'' in Koyo(Congo). Engl ant explained from aemette, in my opinion cf.ant ''sun'' in Medlpa(PNG). For details see Caracterul motivat al semnului lingvistic. Furnica/Ant. in Confluente literare.
*The title of this article is from Max Muller.