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“Internal” Arguments Concerning the Niceta-Remesian Paternity and the Pelasgo-/Wallachian-Dacian Autochthonism of the All-Christendom Hymn, «Te, Deum, Laudamus...» (I)*
 
 
 
 
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Ion Pachia-Tatomirescu  
  
  
“Internal” Arguments Concerning the Niceta-Remesian Paternity and the Pelasgo-/Wallachian-Dacian Autochthonism of the All-Christendom Hymn, «Te, Deum, Laudamus...»  
  
  
(I)*  
  
 
The first great Pelasgian (> Wallachian) Christian poet, Niceta Remesianu**, or (according to mentionings in other documents of the age, making a clear reference to his strategic Danubian eparchy) Niceta of Remesiana / Romoesiana, who established the foundations of both the poetry and the Christian / patristic philosophy, in the sacred Wallachian language of the 4th century, was born in c. 340 A.D. (cf. CSb, 93 sqq.; VSP, 71), in Dacia, undoubtedly, in the flourishing town of Romoesiana (i.e. “the Rome of Moesia”, today, Bela Palanka), near Naissia / Naissus (“the dava of the pan pipe industry”) / Niš (in antiquity, during Burebista, the great king of Great Dacia, an outstanding town-dava of the South-Danubian Dacians, and later, after the conquest of the lands South of the Danube by Rome’s armies, an important military base whence the Roman Empire would attack North-Danubian Dacia – Dacia of Decebalus –, as well as a significant trade centre, like Romoesiana, being today a city laden with ancient history in Serbia), to be more exact, in the imperial Roman province Dacia Ripensis (or Dacia Aureliana, also called Moesia Superior on various time levels), a fact confirmed by Paulinus Nolanus (353 − 431), in Carmen XVII, De reditu Nicetae sive Dacia (Poem XVII, On Niceta’s Return or On Dacia): «ibis et Scupos Patriae propinquos / Dardanus hospes»; «you will also visit the Scupi, who border on your land, / being a guest to Dardania» (PNC, 81 / Fontes, II, 176).  
  
His theological studies, brilliant in the age («atque doctissimo Nicetae» – Paulinusus of Nola), were accomplished in Danubian-Pontico Dacia, supposedly at Tropaeum Traiani, or at Tomis and Constantinusa / Constantinople, under the seal of the “offensive” Christianity and the “defensive” Zalmoxianism.  
  
Despite having been brought up by his parents in the spirit of Zalmoxianism, the young Niceta Remesianu could not have remained uninfluenced by the fact that the emperor Constantine the Great was born (on February 27th, 272) in Naissus, the neighbouring town, legislating Christianity in the whole Roman Empire through the Edict of Mediolanum (> Milan), in the year 313, more than two centuries before the birth of the poet-bishop at Romoesiana / Remesiana. In the political-religious imperial Roman context in the horizon of the year 355 A.D. and due to his “clerical advantages”, it was but natural that the young Niceta Remesianu should “genuinely” opt for Christianity / Orthodoxism in the original variant of the “Cosmic Christianity” (to use Mircea Eliade’s wonderful metaphor, through which he designated the original coordinates of the almost bimillenary Zalmoxianism lent / transferred onto the Wallachian Christianity in Dacia), to which many Romoesian and Naissian fellow citizens had adhered.  
  
In the year 370 A.D. – when the bishop Germanus mentioned him in a letter to the Dacian bishops in Illyricum – he was already in bishopric on his native land, in “his country of rivers / mountains”, at Remesiana (today, Bela Palanka, in Serbia – cf. CPatr, 235 / VPS, 71), or – as the chronicles of the time mention – Romansiana, Romantiana, Romoesiana (Romoesiana < Roma- + -Moesia- + suf. -ana; the “Rome of Moesia”; “of the Romoesian, Romoshenian descent” – cf. IPnp, 99).  
  
Niceta Remesianu’s eparchy would “strategically” include both the territories in South-Danubian Dacia, between Serdica (today, Sofia / Bulgaria) and Singidunum (today, Belgrade / Serbia), as well as the lands in North-Danubian Dacia («Ibis Arctoos procul usque Dacos…» / «you will travel far away to the North Dacians»), from the area of the provinces (“countries”) “of rivers” / “mountains”: Oltenia, Banat, Ardeal (the North and the North-East of Dacia were still under the “control” of the Zalmoxianist priests in “century-old warfare” with Christian Dacia, the “warfare” being unfortunately “overlooked” due to particular hidden interests – cf. CAm, 356; DIS, 520; VSP, 72). While studying (in the year 1948) the missionary area of Saint Niceta of Remesiana, Priest Ioan G. Coman, Doctor of Theology, veridically concluded: «It is not surprising that the missionary area of Saint Niceta de Remesiana should have extended as far as the left bank of the Danube, following the paths of soldiers and previous missionaries... Paulinus of Nola’s clues, corroborated with other literary and archaeological documents... justify, to a large extent, the hypothesis of the Dacian bishop preaching North of the Danube as well.» («The Missionary Art» of Saint Niceta of Remesiana, in The Official Bulletin of the Romanian Patriarchate in Bucharest, The Romanian Orthodox Church, LXVI, 1948, 5 – 8, p. 356 / apud VSP, 72).  
  
The mirific space of the Christian Dacia, where Niceta of Remesiana pursued his calling as “an athlet of Jesus Chirst”, the rich North-Danubian land in particular, was evoked by Paulinus of Nola in the poem dedicated to his Dacian friend, On Niceta’s Return or On Dacia. Niceta of Remesiana had described to him his eparchy in 397 / 398, on the occasion of his journey to the Italic Peninsula. It was North-Danubian Dacia «where Boreas... binds the rivers with thick frost» (according to Herodotus, Marisia / the Muresh River being one of the rivers − cf. HIst, I, 328); it was about the Decebalus-Trajan Dacia, with its “inaccessible mountains”, with its Ardeal (< Arudeal < Arudela < Arutela) rich in gravel banks with gold grains, «the gold previously sought from the earth with the hands», later metamorphosed, during the Wallachian bishop, Niceta of Remesiana, into «gold gathered with the mind from heaven»:  
  
«...quod humi manuque / ante quaerebat, modo mente caelo / conligit aurum.» (PNC, 82 / Fontes, I, 178).  
  
One can easily trace in Paulinus of Nola the readings from Ovid, exiled in South-Danubian Dacia, on the Pontic shore, at Tomis, besides the teachings / information from his master of Maramuresh-Dacian paternal descent – one of the renowned «Daci Magni» –, Ausoniu (D. Magnus Ausonius, c. 310 – 395, who had another illustrious pupil in the person of the Dacian who became the emperor Graţian / Gratianus – cf. BLit, 734), as well as the “vivid”, “live” knowledge of the realities in the large Nicetian-Remesian eparchy on both shores of the Lower Danube, therefore allowing the hypothesis that the Nolanian bishop-friend and poet from the neighbouring South of Rome answered Niceta of Remesiana’s invitation to visit Dacia’s blessed lands which were part of his eparchy.  
  
In Paulinus de Nola’s views as a poet-bishop, Dacia is the realm of “Decebalus’ tragedy, a land of Zalmoxianism which, in spite of emperor Trajan’s victory over the hero-king of North-Danubian Dacia (after the mobilisation of the great military forces of the Roman Empire near the Danube and the Carpathians), never tolerated / approved of slavery: «Those necks which, eternally unsubdued in war, / refused to bow in slavery, / now rejoice to bend in submission» to the yoke «of the true Lord», Jesus Christ, a “new” Celestial Messenger, haloing the Cosmic Christianity.  
  
According to Paulinus of Nola’s lines, Dacia «once the land drenched in blood, is now the land of life». And «where once existed the rule of beasts, / there is now the vigorous life of angels; / the just man now lives his hidden life in the caves / where the brigand once dwelt» (“heathen brigand” in the sense of “non-Zalmoxian”) / «mos ubi quondam fuerat ferarum, / nunc ibi ritus viget angelorum, / et latet iustus quibus ipse latro / vixit in antris» (ibid.).  
  
The English version by Gabriela Pachia.  
  
Bibliography under sigles / Bibliografia „siglată“  
  
  • BLit = Jean Bayet, The Latin Literature, Bucharest, Univers Publishing House, 1972.
  • CAm = I. G. Coman, «The Missionary Area» of Saint Niceta of Remesiana, in The Romanian Orthodox Church (The official bulletin of the Romanian Patriarchate), Bucharest, LXVI, Nos. 5 – 8 / 1948.
  • CPatr = Ioan G. Coman, Patrology, Bucharest, The Biblical and Orthodox Mission Institute Publishing House, 1956.
  • CSb = Ioan G. Coman, Clerical Writers in the Old Wallachian, Bucharest, The Biblical and Romanian Orthodox Mission Institute Publishing House, 1979.
  • DIS = Gh. I. Drăgulin, Influences of the Second Ecumenical Synod (381) and of Its Main Personalities on the Beginnings of the Romanian Theology, in The Mitropolitan Church of Ardeal (The official review of the Archbishopric of Sibiu and of the Archbishopric of Cluj-Napoca, and of the Bishoprics of Alba Iulia, Oradea and Sibiu), Year XXVI, Nos. 7 – 9 / 1981.
  • Fontes, I = Fontes ad historiam Dacoromaniae pertinentes, I (ab Hesiodo usque ad Itinerarium Antonini) / Izvoare privind istoria României, I (de la Hesiod la Itinerarul lui Antoninus — comitetul de redaţie: Vladimir Iliescu, Virgil C. Popescu, Gh. Ştefan), Bucureşti, Editura Academiei Republicii Populare Române, 1964.
  • Fontes, II = Fontes Historiae Dacoromanae, II (ab anno CCC usque ad annum M) / The Sources of Romania’s History, II (from the year 300 to the year 1000 – published by: Haralambie Mihăescu, Gheorghe Ştefan, Radu Hâncu, Vladi-mir Iliescu, Virgil C. Popescu), Bucharest, The Academy of the Socialist Republic of Romania Publishing House, 1970.
  • Hist, I, II = Herodot, Histories, Vol. I, Bucharest, The Science Publishing House, 1961; Vol. II, Bucharest, The Science Publishing House, 1964.
  • IPnp = Ion Itu, Our First Poets, Braşov, The Latin Orient Publishing House, 1994.
  • PNC = Paulinusus Nolanus, Carmen XVII, in Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vol. XXX, Part II, Viena, Ed. G. de Hartel, 1894, p. 81 sq.; or in Fontes, II, pp. 176 – 181.
  • VSP = Nestor Vornicescu: Patristic Writings in the Romanian Orthodox Church Until the 17th, sources, translations, circulation, doctoral thesis, (excerpt from the review The Oltenia Metropolitan Church, Nos. 1 – 2, 3 – 4, and 5 – 6, XXXV / 1983), Craiova, 1983.
*Variante (în limbile valahă / dacoromână şi engleză) ale întregului studiu “Internal” Arguments Concerning the Niceta-Remesian Paternity and the Pelasgo-/Wallachian-Dacian Autochthonism of the All-Christendom Hymn, «Te, Deum, Laudamus...» (Argumente „interne“ privind paternitatea nicetian-remesiană şi autohtonismul pelasgo-/valaho-dacic al imnului întregii Creştinătăţi, «Te, Deum, laudamus...»), de Ion Pachia-Tatomirescu, pot fi aflate de Distinsul Receptor în :  
  
(A) volumul Argumente „Interne“ – «Te Deum Laudamus...» – Internal Arguments, de Ion Pachia-Tatomirescu, Timişoara, Editura Aethicus (ISBN: 978-606-8125-00-8), 2009 (cf.  
  
(B) Anuarul de martie (Timişoara, ISSN 1842-0974, redactor-şef: Ion Pachia-Tatomirescu), nr. 5 / 2010, pp. 297 ‒ 322 (cf.  
  
** Imaginea de mai sus, „din caseta clasicei fotografii auctoriale“, reprezintă pe episcopul-poet, Sfântul Pelasg > Valah, Niceta Remesianu (aprox. 340 ‒ 416), portret în tuş, de Patricia Pura.  
  
 
  
Referinţă Bibliografică:
“Internal” Arguments Concerning the Niceta-Remesian Paternity and the Pelasgo-/Wallachian-Dacian Autochthonism of the All-Christendom Hymn, «Te, Deum, Laudamus...» (I)* / Ion Pachia Tatomirescu : Confluenţe Literare, Ediţia nr. 2596, Anul VIII, 08 februarie 2018.

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