WAR AND PEACE
by Ion Carstoiu
It's not about Lev Tolstoi's novel, but an attempt to explain the etymology of words ''war'' and ''peace''.In Etruscan mythology Laran ,god of war ,is associated with fire and sun cf.lara''sun'' in Aru(Indonesia). Cath, Etruscan sun god was bearing on his head the flaming disc of the sun, in each hand he holds a ball of fire. Cf.Etruscan catha"war''. Huitzlopochtli was Aztec god of the sun and the war.Lugu in Celtic pantheon was a sun god associated with war and healing. Montu, ''who we generally identify as an ancient war god, actually originated in the form of a local solar god in Southern Egypt˝. ''A synonym of Shamash was Nergal, at first the master of the burning sun, then the god of the war, which carried with him murderous weapons''(C.Daniel, Civilizatia sumeriana, Bucuresti,1983,p.164). It is not hard to accept that from the sun come; light, warmth, life itself, hope, love, but also bad things: war ,,sunstroke, hatred etc. Engl. war is explained as a ''confusion''. ,but we must see a connection with war ''sun'' in Gorani (Iran) and Abui (Timor). Latin bellum ''war'' oficially comes from duellum, but compare Celtic sun god Bel, beli ''sun'' in Assamese, bel in Remo (Odisha, India), beil in Rohingya, all ''sun''. Here is Greek polemos (unkn.or.) comparable with Apolo, sun god. Scientists explain Russian [vaina] ''war'' by voi ''soldier'', but I propose to compare with wayna ''sun'' in Adzerma/Zarma (Niger, Nigeria).
Add: Chechen tom ''war'~toma ''sun'' in Wiyot., Lithuanian karas~karasi ''sun'' in Murua (PNG), Hindi, Urdu yuddh/yuddha ''war''=soda in Karelian, Turkish savas (unkn.or.) is comparable with sapas ''sun'' in Phoenician and saba ''sun'' in Klamath, Hungarian haboru (unkn.or..) resembles Kheper, sun god in Egypt (p=b).German Krieg is difficult to explain. May be kor ''sun'' in Iranian and Didinga (S.Sudan). or keri ''sun'' in Tariano (Brazil), zero grade, +suf.-ig..Milkhama in Hebrew and Lao song kham both ''war'' contain kham ''sun'' in Indian?
In war are used weapons: pole, spear, sword, arrow, arch, gun etc. Arrow resembles araw ''sun'' in Tagalog, Chinese shi=shi ''sun'' in Mixe de Jaltepec, harita means ''arrow'' in Orokolo vs.hare ''sun'', Latin sagitta cf.sakita ''sun'' in Wichita, ''The rays of the sun may also be described as fiery arrows'' (Milaire Wood). And now sword… Read etymology in OED and Wiktionary. Proto Germanic*swerda is possibly from PIE*seh2w-''sharp''. In my opinion sword resembles Indian sur"'sun'', *suor(u=w)+suf.-d., in Khoekhoe(Namibia) sore- is''sun'', in Romanian soare ''sun'' is pronunced suare. Slavic sablia, Romanian sabie may be comparable with saba ''sun'' in Klamath. Russian mech ''sword'' is like the final of Shamash, mash ''sun'' in Nubian, shemesh in Hebrew with change sh to ch. Scientists consider mech a Germanic borrowing. Latin gladius oficially from Gaulish *kladyos from Proto-Celtic*kelh2- ''to beat break''. I think cf.ghali''in Klatskanie, galo in Sinaugoro, all''sun'', zero grade+suf.-d. Add gal ''fire'' in Mongolian and in Irish''war, warmth,power''. Another Latin word for ''sword'' is ensis.=mensis''month''. The arrow is drawn with (by) the arch, in Latin arcus cf.Sanskrit arka ''sun''.
But peace? Peace is also in relation to ''sun''. Slavic mir=mir ''sun'' in yey (PNG), miir, miri in Australia. Read etymology of peace, Latin pax . In my opinion pax[paks] is comparable with poko ''sun'' in Maidu, like Slavic pokoi., Romanian interjection pac! ''bang'' Chechen masher ''peace''~mash''sun'' in Nubian. Tigrinya salam cf.sal ''sun'' in Garo(Assam, India). Turkish sulh~sol ''sun'' in Latin. I am not sure that Lithuanian taika is associated with tai ''sun'' in Kiribati
I found a list of gods of war&the sun: AH KINCHIL in Maya, AKUSAA (Egypt), AMATERASU (Japan), CHUP KAMUI (Ainu), GNOWEE (Australia), HELIOS(Greek), INTI(Quechua), IRUWA(Kenya), KINICH AHAU(Maya), KUAT(Brazil), LEGBA(Haiti), MANCO CAPAC(Peru), MOLOCH(Canaan), RA(Egypt),SAULE(Lithuania),SAVITAR(India),SHAKURU(Pawnee),SHAPSU(Canaan),SOL(Roman),SURYA(India),XATEL EKWA(Hungarian).in Table of Gods-Eskimo North.(Internet).