THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE AND PHILOSOPHY
By Ion Cârstoiu
The scientists say that ”the solution to the problem of the origin of language goes beyond the linguistic possibilities” and that ”unsatisfactory results are due to the fact that until now anthropologists, linguists, historians, psychologists have not combined their knowledge, methods and points of view” (TLG,Bucharest,1971,p.298). It is certain that the origin of language is intimately linked to the appearance of man and human society.There are two theories about the appearence of man himself:first the religious one who asserts that God created man from clay and the evolutionist theory, after which man detached from a variety of monkeys, namely from Australian branch, about 5-6000000 years ago, the ancestors of man evolving slowly. First he got up on his feet and gained another orizon(homo erectus). Biped going has led to transformations of internal organs, now disposed vertically. Man’s hands became free for activities. At that time man’s language is limited to shouting, raging, grumbling and grunting related to certain actions:joint hunting, social life. It is believed that articulated speech is not more than 100000 years or more hundreds of thousands of years (Finuta Hasan, Intr.in ling., Bucharest, 1972.p.29, A.Vraciu, Lingv.gen. si comparata, Bucharest, 1980, p.40-48)
We propose a solution based on the convergence of the current languages. It is known that today are over 5000 unegually developed languages: some idioms reflect very old stages, they have been conserved by isolation and anothers are so mixed that hardly it is possible to penetrate in their secrets. My hypothesis is based on comparative linguistics corroborated with general mythology and primarilly with the oppositionist theory of ancient Chinese philosophy (Yang and Yin) and Iranian. It is clear that man’s ancestors have been housed in caves, from where they stand on two feet, raised head to heaven to see the weather. This is my idea: the human-heaven relationship. He was impressed by the phenomena of nature: the giant sky, the sun, the clouds, the lightning, the thunder, the light of the day, the darkness of the night, the moon, stars. The sky was the first and single god, so the idea of the original monotheism is not an aberration. It is to be noticed that the Sumerian an means „sky”and ”god”, so Iranian bag, Tungus-Manchu buga, boga, Samoyed num, Latin deus ”god”is from the family of *dieu”sunny sky”, cf.Diauspitar in Sanskrit, Lat.Jupiter, diews in the Baltic, Zeus. And from this root comes the word that means ”day”: dies. For fear of the scary natural phenomena, which he did not understand, took birth religion. Although onomatopoeic and interjections theories remain as correct, we can not yet know why some onomatopoeia and interjections have remained today and others have turned into words. To joke, we will say that the first word spoken by man was au!
At least three things are likely: -language is a result of metaphorical expresion; -it has been encoded and our duty is to find the code and to indicate the semantic evolution; -that in the making of various words and languages it is not necessary we refer to the point of view of the present science, but to the primitive man’s beliefs, for then words were created.
Lets give some examples. According to modern science, man comes from a sort of monkey, but all religious beliefs tell us he was created by God from clay, blowing him life. It is obvious that Lat.homo ”man” is close to humus, in Romanian humă, as Adam”man”is similar to adama”earth”. The Germanic man, with uncertain origin, compared by some with*men ”to think”is again in the relationship-after me-with Finnic(Suomi)maa ”earth”, maan being an adjective ”from the earth”, cf.Tamil maan”earth”. Even the Chinese ren(pronounced jen )we have to compare with the Greek gen ”to create, gen”, which is clear from ge”earth”. Add Mongol for „man” er face Turkish yer”earth” and also Mongol hun cf.Chinese khun ”earth”. The same in Somali nin means ”man”( in Japanese too)and can be related to nine”earth” in Bambara(Mali). But the Samoyeds in Northern Siberia believe that god first took some tree branches, which became the bones (skeleton) on which the earth has glued to, and the Ainu in Japan claim that their god has taken willow branches. Of course these beliefs have left traces, as we can see that „bone” and „wood” are the same. Latin costa, Slavonic kost’, Greek osteon, Lat.oss-correspond to the Old Indian kasht ”wood”, the Lat. and Greek terms without k- are represented by astula ”small wood’(Romanian aşchie). Also the Sino-Korean kel ”bone” is identical with PIE*kel”wood”. In Hebrew etz is wood and etzem has the meaning of bone (cf.schela in building~schelet in anatomy). The ancient thought that each planet is a god, that the planets influence our lives (astrology), the days of the week, the months, the calendar are related to the astres, the horoscope etc. Up to now people knew the earth was sitting and the sun was turning, moving, rising, setting and rising again daily. We must not wonder that when people created the word „to sit, to stay ” they thought about the star, in Romanian it is best seen:o stea~să stea (star~to stay). Instead, the sun goes on heaven: Arabic meshi”to go, walk”cf.Hebrew shemesh”sun”, or jumps: it is now in a place and in two hours you see it elsewhere: it jumpt there. Romanian verb sare ”he jumps” resembles with soare (sun), with O.Indian sura, especially with the name of sun sare in Kaipi, Toaripi (Papua New Guinea), as Latin salire”to jump” is in relation to sol, especially to name of sun sal in Garo, India. The sun rises i.e.jumps again. It is possible that the Latin re- showing a repet action to come from the Egyptian sungod Re?
I formulate the hypothesis that the primarily language is a metaphorical description of the phenomena and cosmic activities linked primarily to the sky, then to the sun, to the earth and man’s relation with them. People have always try to justify words according to the conception of time: the Mohammedans believe that man is made of a blood clot to explain the similarity between Adam ”man”, adama ”earth ”and dam ”blood”.
(This article is translated by me, a self educated man vs.English in February 2018; it was first published in the book Paşi în universul cunoaşterii, Craiova, 2001, republished in Originea limbajului. The Origin of Language, 2015).